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How To Choose The Right Toilet For Me?

Jul 21, 2020
How To Choose The Right Toilet For Me?
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Source from : Jones, C., 2020. How To Choose The Right Toilet For Me?. [online] Toilet Guide. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 July 2020].

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You can look at it any way that you want to, but when you ask your self the question: ‘how to choose a toilet that is a good fit for my home‘, you will find out that there are some very specific things you want because good toilets have better features. Because there are also blanks with some of your questions, the best way to answer them is to get it all out in the open so that you understand the basics of toilets. There is nothing confusing in this guide, and it rather focuses on providing an outlet for you to put your ideas on one page to make a better decision. There is no wrong choice if you get all the features you want, and once you go through this short guide you’ll have a better understanding of what it is that makes sense for the home installation. As an added bonus any new age toilet chosen is easy to install and lacks the headaches of older models.

How to Pick the Right Toilet?


Depending on where the installation is taking place, customers may want to redo the measurements. This includes the rough in size and the height from the bottom of the toilet to the toilet seat. Little things like toilet seat height could turn a purchase that looks good on paper to an uncomfortable mess once installed. This includes if you are installing a toilet meant solely for a small kid’s bathroom and they are uncomfortable on elongated toilets. Or what if you purchase a toilet that sits a little higher than what they’re comfortable with? Then it is back to the drawing board and possible money down the drain. Checking and rechecking the measurements will help a lot, and if you are installing it into a bathroom with limited space, then make note of whether the new toilet will be bigger than the current toilet. It’s a small gesture that will go a long way in giving you the most worry free install experience possible.


Choosing the Right ToiletThe prices for toilets will vary depending on the type you are getting and from what company. There are very few low priced quality toilets available, so be wary on going too cheap with the price as that just means it is an inferior product. Some companies even offer package deals by selling two toilets as one and shaving off some of the price. Not all companies offer this, but in a case where a buyer needs more than one toilet it could potentially save them a lot of money. Be wary of features you don’t need so that overpaying isn’t even an option. It may be tempting to want to buy a toilet with a nightlight, but if you know that you aren’t going to use that feature then why pay extra for it? There is a lot of competition in the toilet market, so for every toilet that has that 1 extra feature you don’t need there is another toilet with the same specs, and lacking that unneeded feature. Shop smart toilets and only target features that mean something to you like water efficiency or power of the flush.

Water Usage

How to Choose the Right Toilet for MeWith the industry standard being set at 1.6 gallons per flush, buyers are safe in that all the new toilets won’t surpass that threshold. But smart shoppers shouldn’t settle for the industry standard if their main goal is to save money with their water bill. Dual flush toilets are the new craze, and it has two buttons to give you a flush that uses a small amount or water or a power flush that uses the full 1.6 amount. These toilets can get a little high in price, so for other customers the alternative is to settle for a toilet that is either high powered or water efficient. This can create a dilemma, since no one wants to make the wrong decision and have to send the toilet back. The easiest decision is to purchase the dual flush, but if that is out of your price range, then it is a safe bet to go with toilets that use as little as 1.28 gallons per flush. These are Watersense certified toilets and it is a safe middle ground between saving water resources and giving you the power you need to get a good flush. Variety is pretty good with the 1.28 models so customers are sure to come away with something that they love. If you are looking for the best rated flushing toilets see this guide.


A combination of size, water usage information and price should be all a customer needs to make an educated decision on the perfect toilet for their home. Things don’t really get complicated, but they sure do get exciting with all of the options that are pushed in your face. Since everyone has different tastes, there is no telling what you may end up taking home. As long as you do your homework, you’ll do your new bathroom addition justice

How do I use a public toilet and avoid Covid-19?

Jul 17, 2020
How do I use a public toilet and avoid Covid-19?
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Source from : The Irish Times. 2020. How Do I Use A Public Toilet And Avoid Covid-19?. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 17 July 2020].

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We have all become much more aware of the risks of picking up infections during the Covid-19 pandemic so, as we enter a new phase of unlocking, here are some tips to keep in mind if you need to use a public toilet while out and about. 

How safe are public toilets to use?

Public toilets by definition carry greater infection risks than toilets in your home because they are used by a larger number of people whose health status is unknown. Add to this the lack of responsibility some people take over their hygiene when using these facilities. And that’s before you even consider the extra dimension of the picking up infections during a pandemic.

Are public toilets a particular risky place to pick up Covid-19?

Recent reports have drawn attention to the so-called “toilet plume” – the infectious droplets in the air that arise from a toilet after use. One study reported in the Physics of Fluids journal focused on the potential risk of infection from virus-laden faeces aside from the commonly known spread of infection through respiratory droplets. As the rate of infection of the novel coronavirus remains low in Ireland, the risk of getting infected in this way also remains low; however, flushing the toilet with the lid down (using toilet paper to put the lid down rather than your bare hands) before use and waiting a minute before using the toilet is an extra precaution you can take to avoid all kinds of bugs.

What other precautions should I take when using public toilets?
Avoid touching any surface with your bare hands while you are using the toilet.  Open the toilet door with a tissue and then throw that tissue in the toilet. Put the lid of the toilet down after using it before flushing. Stand away from a toilet that has an automatic flusher. And, most importantly of all, wash and dry your hands thoroughly after using the toilet. Some experts also recommend wearing a face mask to prevent exposure to infectious droplets in and around public toilets. Avoid touching your face until you have washed and dried your hands.

Are some public toilets safer than others?

Local authorities and shopping centres have new hygiene protocols around public toilets in the past few weeks. Dublin City Council has installed new sets of public toilets outside the St Stephen’s Green shopping centre in Dublin 2 and in Wolfe Tone Square in Dublin 1, which are managed by a cleaner and a security guard daily from 10am to 8pm. Since they have been installed, they have been used over 1,000 times a day. In Dundrum Town Centre, only every second toilet cubicle, urinal and sink is in use. If queues form, toilets are closed off and customers are directed to toilets on other levels of the shopping centre.

Are public toilets in shopping centres safer than on-street public toilets?

This is debatable as it depends on how often the toilets are cleaned and the social distancing and hygiene measures observed by users of these facilities. However, one thing is clear, toilets with multiple stalls (as opposed to one single public toilet) which are not all in constant use allow users to choose a toilet that has been free for a longer time, thus reducing the risk of picking up an infection from someone who has just stepped out of the toilet. Toilets with windows create an extra air flow, which also reduces the risk of infection.

What about toilets in pubs, restaurants and cafes?

Pubs, cafes and restaurants have been advised to have a clear queueing system in place, so that social distancing measures are observed. Toilets must be cleaned at least twice a day. Soap, hand sanitiser dispensers and disposable tissue dispensers must be regularly checked, cleaned and maintained.

Use of toilets in bars, cafes and restaurants is at the discretion of the owner/manager of the premises. However, some owners/managers may require contact details of those who use the toilets for the purposes of contact tracing should an outbreak of Covid-19 be traced back to that particular bar or restaurant.


Keep A Lid On It - How Your Toilet Could Be Spreading Covid-19

Jul 17, 2020
Keep A Lid On It - How Your Toilet Could Be Spreading Covid-19
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Source from : Ng, M., 2020. Keep A Lid On It - How Your Toilet Could Be Spreading Covid-19. [online] Forbes. Available at: <> [Accessed 17 July 2020].

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Keep your toilet lid closed when you flush - that's the advice being pushed by researchers in their continuing fight against the Covid-19 pandemic.

A Chinese study has revealed what goes down when you flush a toilet, and importantly, what stays up.

Published in the journal Physics of Fluids, the research showed that when a toilet is flushed, a cloud of tiny droplets is propelled up to three feet in the air.

These micro-particles can then 'hang' in the air for up to one minute - enough time to be breathed in by the next person needing to go.

Recent studies show the Covid-19 virus can survive as it passes through a person's digestive tract, becoming present in their feces.

A flushing toilet is known to disperse other virus and bacteria in the air, in a process known as fecal-oral transmission.

Though person to person transmission of Covid-19 via this way wasn't clearly established by the study, the researchers say it's entirely possible, given the evidence.The team from Yangzhou University analysed computer models that simulated the water and airflow in two types of flushing toilets.

They discovered that when water hits the toilet bowl, a large amount of turbulence is generated, leading to the formation of vortices. These vortices continue upwards past the bowl and into the air, accelerating droplets of fecal matter to speeds of up to five metres per second.


''The simulation results are alarming in that a massive upward transport of virus particles is observed,'' reports the study. ''In addition, 40%–60% of particles reached above the toilet seat, leading to large-scale virus spread.''

The investigators recommended that people close toilet lids when they flush and practice good hygiene, such as thoroughly washing their hands and cleaning the toilet seat before use.

With lockdown measures easing in some countries, people are now returning to the office and other public spaces such as shops and parks.

However, public and work toilets could still pose a risk for spreading Covid-19, particularly in facilities with no toilet lid to put down.

The study authors note: ''Blocking the path of fecal-oral transmission, which occurs commonly in toilet usage, is of fundamental importance in suppressing the spread of viruses. However, to date, efforts at improving sanitary safety in toilet use have been insufficient.''

The study authors also recommend manufacturers start rethinking toilet designs to help minimize the spread of other viruses and bacteria when they flush.

''The simulation results are alarming in that a massive upward transport of virus particles is observed,'' reports the study. ''In addition, 40%–60% of particles reached above the toilet seat, leading to large-scale virus spread.''

The investigators recommended that people close toilet lids when they flush and practice good hygiene, such as thoroughly washing their hands and cleaning the toilet seat before use.

With lockdown measures easing in some countries, people are now returning to the office and other public spaces such as shops and parks.

However, public and work toilets could still pose a risk for spreading Covid-19, particularly in facilities with no toilet lid to put down.

The study authors note: ''Blocking the path of fecal-oral transmission, which occurs commonly in toilet usage, is of fundamental importance in suppressing the spread of viruses. However, to date, efforts at improving sanitary safety in toilet use have been insufficient.''

The study authors also recommend manufacturers start rethinking toilet designs to help minimize the spread of other viruses and bacteria when they flush


Jul 16, 2020
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Source from : OGEZI, C., 2020. Toilet Hygiene. [online] Leadership Newspaper. Available at: <,gastrointestinal%20and%20urinary%20tract%20infection.&text=It%20is%20important%20to%20avoid,surfaces%20harbour%20and%20spread%20germs.> [Accessed 16 July 2020].

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The toilet has a lot to do with personal hygiene and general health as it is a place that can not be avoided since it is essential to take a bath and visit the toilet often in a day,  keeping it clean and free from anything that can endanger health is important.

The toilet, like the bathroom, is a humid area of the house, due to the amount of water in the cistern. A toilet is also a perfect place for germs and bacteria to breed. Bacteria’s like E-coli, Salmonella and much more can mostly be found in the toilet bowl. These bacteria’s are also found on the toilet seat, the floor, the flush and the door handle. Bacteria in the toilet absorb organic waste and release gases which is the reason why we get a foul odor in the toilets. Hence toilet hygiene is very important.

Basic Tips To Toilet Hygiene

Sweep the floor and pick up any trash: When sweeping, start in one corner of the bathroom and sweep in overlapping strokes toward a single area. Collect trash and put it in the dustbin.

Clean the mirror and lights: Clean mirrors with a tissue paper. Dust and disinfect lights, vents, faucets, fans and light switches.Disinfect all high-touch areas: Disinfect toilet flush handles, door knobs, faucets, paper towel dispensers, stall locks, light switches, and wall. Disinfectants need to sit on a surface for several minutes in order to kill pathogens. Use floor cleaning solution to scrub floors, baseboards, tiles, grout and especially the areas around toilets and urinals.

Shut the lid before flushing: Every time you flush the toilet, bacteria are projected into the air and then cover all the surrounding surfaces. So it is extremely crucial to always flush the toilet with the toilet lid down. This practice will reduce the spread of bacteria in the toilet.

Clean your toilet brushes: Remember to clean the toilet brush which can spread bacteria if not cleaned after every use. Wash toilet brush with disinfecting detergent. Toilet brushes should be changed at least once every six months.

Ventilate your toilet: Air the toilet to reduce the level of humidity in the room and check that the ventilation system is working properly. Allow floor to dry fully. The fastest way to do this is by using a dry mop, which can help sop up any solution that’s left on the floor after mopping. This practice also helps reduce the risk of slips and falls.

Use Toilet Seat Sanitiser: Clean the toilet seat daily with a product specifically designed to reduce the spread of bacteria. If you have children, do the same for their toilet seat as well. Use products like toilet seat sanitizer spray which removes harmful germs and bacteria.

Toilet seats can be downright difficult to get a sparkling status, which means you end up spending much more time than you would like, crouching down beside the toilet scrubbing away.Wash your hands regularly: Go over the flush and the taps with extra care as they are breeding grounds for bacteria. These are ideal places to pick up microbes as they are in direct contact with our hands. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap every time you use the toilet.

It has been advised for all to imbibe the culture of hand washing, and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene are adopted, it reduces the number of people suffering from communicable disease linked to poor hygiene and sanitation.

Due to the growing challenges posed toilet hygiene there are strategies that were put in place to raise awareness on hygiene and behavioural change, among them the Community organization which are hardly adhered to.

Schools, churches and mosques and other public places are areas found to have these challenges, it is important to know how to use a public toilet, If you must

1. Avoid sitting on the toilet bowl.

3. Flush before every use.2. Disinfect before use.

General Tips On Toilet hygiene

Since good toilet hygiene reduces the risk of illnesses, infection and diseases like gastrointestinal and urinary tract infection.

It is important to note that hand washing is an essential practice.

Effective hand washing involves clean water and soap and scrubbing both the front and back of your hands, between your fingers and under your nails for a minimum of 20 seconds can keep you safe. It is important to avoid touching different toilets surfaces like faucets and door handles after a hand wash since these surfaces harbour and spread germs.

Training children on hygiene is also important. For instance, boys should be trained about not urinating on toilets seats and girls about wiping from front to back to avoid spreading germs to their genitals.Using disposable towels or toilet paper is a good way to avoid touching such surfaces. Flushing and covering toilet seats after using the toilet is important as well.

Using liquid soap is a better option than bar soap as the latter could be a source of infection, pointing out that avoiding towels in rest rooms is vital as these are not frequently changed and could be a source of infection. Opt for disposable tissue to dry hands after using the toilet.

Shaking hands is are also another source of spread of germs, especially after toilet use, so be sure to wash hands frequently after several handshakes or touching surfaces in public areas used by big numbers of people.

Habit of placing bags or phones on the toilet floors as these are ridden with germs. Not flushing sanitary pads down the toilet, but rather placing them in the bins provided is as well vital.


Jul 15, 2020
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Source from : CLHGroup. 2020. Clean Toilets: How Important Are They?. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 15 July 2020].

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Whether you run a care home, day care centre, or another social care facility it’s essential that you understand the importance of keeping toilets clean.

What is the impact of unhygienic toilets?

A recent YouGov survey of over 2000 people found that dirty and unsanitary bathrooms put people off of returning to the same place again, which means that if your facility's bathrooms aren’t kept clean, you might lose customers as a result. There’s also a chance that your care facility will get a poor rating during a Care Quality Commission check if the bathroom facilities are found to be unclean and unsafe as a result.

What this survey also found was that when coming across a dirty bathroom, 85% of people warn their friends and family about the poor condition of the facilities, with 76% of those people put off by what they are told. This is a worrying statistic because all it takes is one bad review of your care facility and you could be at risk of losing a large amount of potential customers. You may even lose some of your current customers if the families of your residents hear about the poor conditions and decide to move them to another facility.

What this new research revealed is that British people are ‘sticklers’ for bathroom hygiene, with many people taking extra precautions to avoid coming in contact with germs. When toilet facilities lack hygiene, 24% of people choose to lay toilet paper on seats, 29% choose to squat above the toilet, and 21% opt to use elbows or paper towels to open doors.

What are the biggest concerns regarding toilet cleanliness? Cleanliness itself is an issue for 90% of people, while a lack of toilet paper is a problem for 89%, and a lack of soap puts 70% of people off of returning to a toilet again, bad smells put 63% of people off of returning to the same bathroom again.

If a facility, such as a car facility lacks hygienic toilets, 97% of people would be put off of returning there again, with 85% of people choosing to warn friends and family about the problem. The survey also revealed that over three-quarters of people would be put off of visiting somewhere if a friend or family member told them that the toilets were dirty or unclean.

This study also showed that most people would rather not keep these kinds of problems to themselves and 60% said that they would bring the issue up with staff directly, while a quarter would make a complaint via social media.

What can care sector facilities do to ensure that their bathrooms remain hygienic?

Set a regular cleaning rota and perform checks

One of the most important things that care facilities can do to ensure that their bathrooms for visitor use are kept clean is to establish a regular cleaning schedule and perform checks between cleans. It’s also important that the cleaning processes in place allow cleaners to give each bathroom a deep clean, ensuring that all dirt and odour is removed at each cleaning session. A step by step cleaning plan for cleaners to follow combined with having access to all of the best cleaning materials and tools is essential. Providing adequate staff training is also important, to ensure that cleaning is performed to a high-quality and bathrooms are left in a hygienic state.

Provide hygienic tools for users

For many people, having access to hygienic tools makes the use of public bathrooms more enjoyable. When a bathroom feels like a hygienic space, it makes using it a less stressful experience. To ensure that your bathrooms are as hygienic as possible for your users, it’s a good idea to consider incorporating tools for hygiene, such as flushable toilet seat covers and antibacterial toilet wipes to remove germs from the toilet seat and flush before use.

Ensure antibacterial soap is available

Another essential step to take is to make sure that not only every bathroom is always stocked up with soap, but also that the soap being used is antibacterial and kills 99.9% of germs with each use. Bathroom users don’t want to use soap that doesn’t kill germs, so ensuring that there is an effective antibacterial soap in place is crucial.

Offer an alternative to hand dryers

A large percentage of people aren’t comfortable using hand dryers because they believe that they create more germs due to the warm air and spread them around. So it’s important that as well as offering hand dryers, your bathrooms also offer reusable paper towels as an alternative method of hand drying.

Combat bad odours

Bad odours can put people off of using a bathroom, which is why it’s important that as part of your bathroom hygiene practices that you combat bad odours. Using quality cleaning products can help to do this, which is why it’s important that you are selective about the cleaning products that you use.

At CLH, we have a wide range of commercial cleaning products that are designed to perfectly fit the needs of care environments, so it might be worth taking the time to have a look at our wide range of cleaning products.

In addition to using quality cleaning products, you might also want to consider adding air fresheners to your bathrooms, to help ensure that bad odours don’t linger. You can choose from a wide range of air fresheners, from free-standing designs to air fresheners that plugin or diffuse automatically at certain set times. Don’t choose overly scented air fresheners, as these simply mask the odour, look for air fresheners that actually disperse bad odours, instead of simply masking them.

There you have it, a guide to why clean toilets are important for your care environment and why it’s essential that you take bathroom hygiene seriously.

Why is personal hygiene important?

Jul 15, 2020
Why is personal hygiene important?
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Source from : 2020. Personal Hygiene: Benefits, Types, And Routine. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 15 July 2020].

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Practicing good personal hygiene is important for helping keep the body healthy and clean.

In this article, we outline the importance of personal hygiene. We also discuss different types of hygiene, self-care routines, and what may happen if hygiene practices lapse.

What is it? 

There are many types of personal hygiene.

The following list is a good starting point for someone looking to build a personal hygiene routine:


Dental hygiene involves more than just having white teeth. A good dental hygiene routine can help prevent issues such as gum disease and cavities. It can also prevent bad breath.


Several million sweat glands cover the human body. When bacteria break down sweat, the process creates a smell or body odor.

Washing the body will help prevent skin irritation, as well as removing the bacteria that cause body odor. Washing the hair removes oil and keeps a person looking clean and fresh.

Hand washing

Regular hand washing is one of the best ways to avoid spreading communicable diseases.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend washing the hands at certain times:

  • before, during, and after preparing food
  • before eating food
  • before and after looking after anyone who is vomiting or has diarrhea
  • before and after treating a cut or wound
  • after going to the bathroom
  • after changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet
  • after blowing the nose, coughing, or sneezing
  • after touching garbage or dirty surfaces or objects
  • after handling pets or pet-related items, such as food


Fingernails may harbor dirt and germs, contributing to the spread of bacteria. It is easier for dirt and germs to collect under longer nails, so keeping them short can help reduce the risk of spreading infections

Knowing how to maintain good personal hygiene can make it easier to build a routine. A person should have some basic knowledge of the following types of hygiene:

Dental hygiene

For a healthy mouth and smile, the American Dental Association (ADA) recommend brushing the teeth for 2 minutes at least twice a day — once before breakfast and once before bed.

People should use an ADA-accepted fluoride toothpaste and replace the toothbrush every 3–4 months. The ADA also advise people to floss daily.

Learn more about good dental hygiene here.

Hand washing

The CDC outline five simple steps for effective hand washing:

  1. Wet the hands with clean, running water, then turn off the tap and apply soap.
  2. Lather the hands by rubbing them together with the soap, remembering to reach the backs of the hands, between the fingers, and under the nails.
  3. Scrub the hands for at least 20 seconds, which a person can time by humming the “Happy Birthday” song twice.
  4. Rinse the hands well under clean, running water.
  5. Dry the hands using a clean towel or air dry them.

Learn more about proper hand washing here.


It is advisable to shower or bathe daily, using soap and water to rinse away dead skin cells, oil, and bacteria. People can pay special attention to areas that accumulate more sweat, such as the armpits, in between the toes, and the groin area.

They should also wash their hair with shampoo at least once a week, or more if necessary. Applying deodorant when fully dry can help prevent body odors.

Learn more about how often to shower here.


Using sanitized tools to trim the nails and keep them short is one of the best ways to ensure that no dirt can collect underneath them.

Scrubbing the underside of the nails with a nail brush can form part of a person’s hand washing routine.

Menstrual and genital hygiene

It is important to change sanitary products regularly and to wash the hands before and after changing tampons, pads, or any other sanitary products.

As vaginas are self-cleaning, using soap to clean the vagina can cause an imbalance of its natural bacteria and lead to infections. The vulva (the external part of the vagina) should only need cleaning once a day using a mild soap and water.

People with an uncircumcised penis can clean it by gently pulling back the foreskin and washing underneath it with warm water or soap.

Learn more about vaginal hygiene here.

Learn more about identifying and removing smegma here

Parents and caregivers should teach children how to keep themselves clean from a young age.

For example, they can start using toothpaste to brush a child’s teeth when they reach the age of 12 months. When the gaps between a child’s teeth close, it is important to start flossing.

Encouraging children to help clean themselves as soon as they are old enough is a good way to instigate a proper personal hygiene routine.

Poverty and lack of access to clean water can both have a detrimental effect on a person’s personal hygiene.

A person’s mental health can also affect how they take care of themselves. People who are living with certain conditions, such as a psychotic disorder, severe depression, or drug or alcohol use disorder, may find it very difficult to keep up a personal hygiene routine.

Conditions that poor personal hygiene can signal

While personal hygiene can cause certain health issues, it can also be a side effect of some of them.

People living with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia often have poor oral hygiene.

In some cases, the inability to maintain a hygiene routine could result from depression. Depressive symptoms, such as reduced energy levels and impaired cognitive function, can make a self-care regimen more difficult to keep up.

Coronavirus: 5 good personal hygiene practices to keep the virus at bay

Jul 15, 2020
Coronavirus: 5 good personal hygiene practices to keep the virus at bay
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Source from : IAU, J., 2020. Coronavirus: 5 Good Personal Hygiene Practices To Keep The Virus At Bay. [online] The Straits Times. Available at: <> [Accessed 15 July 2020].
Source of image : Johns Hopkins Medicine

SINGAPORE - A new multi-agency task force has been formed to raise the standards of cleanliness and public hygiene in Singapore, the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources said on Friday (March 6).

The SG Clean Taskforce aims to ensure the cleanliness of public spaces, encourage good personal hygiene and adjust social norms to reduce the spread of diseases.

Here are five personal hygiene habits that the task force recommended on Friday:


After using tissue paper to sneeze, cough or blow your nose, wrap it with another piece of clean tissue paper and throw them away in a dustbin. In hawker centres, do not leave soiled tissue paper on the table for cleaners to pick up.


The virus has spread in two clusters through group meals. It is best not to share food. If group meals cannot be avoided, using serving spoons can prevent germs spreading from one person to another.


This will prevent food from spilling or dripping from plates and bowls onto the tables, and cleaners having to pick them up, potentially spreading diseases.



This will reduce the spread of diseases and viruses such as Covid-19 and dengue within the community.


Poor toilet hygiene behind E. coli superbug spread

Jul 15, 2020
Poor toilet hygiene behind E. coli superbug spread
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Source From : BBC News. 2020. Poor Toilet Hygiene Behind E. Coli Superbug Spread. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 15 July 2020].

Source of Image : BBC News. 2020

People not washing their hands after going to the toilet, rather than undercooked meat, is behind the spread of a key strain of E. coli.

Experts looked at thousands of blood, faecal and food samples.

They found human-to-human transmission was responsible - ''faecal particles from one person reaching the mouth of another''.

Public Health England said hand-washing and good hygiene were key to preventing the spread of infections.

There are many different strains of E. coli. Most are harmless but some can cause serious illness.

Antibiotic-resistant E. coli is increasingly common. Strains which have 'Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) - enzymes that destroy penicillin and another antibiotic, cephalosporin - are causing particular concern.

E. coli is the most common cause of blood poisoning, accounting for about one third of cases in the UK, with ESBL strains accounting for around 10% of those - around 5,000 a year

'Little crossover'

In the study, published in Lancet: Infectious Diseases, the team analysed 20,000 human faecal samples and 300 blood samples plus hundreds of sewage samples, animal slurry and meats including beef, pork and chicken - as well fruit and salad.

One strain - ST131 - was seen in the majority of human samples from all three sources. It is found in the gut but can, usually via urinary tract infections, cause serious infections.

However, the strains found in meat, cattle and animal slurry were mostly different.

Prof David Livermore, from the University of East Anglia's Norwich Medical School, who led the research, said: ''Critically - there's little crossover between strains from humans, chickens and cattle.

''Rather - and unpalatably - the likeliest route of transmission for ESBL-E. coli is directly from human to human, with faecal particles from one person reaching the mouth of another.''

He said maintaining food hygiene was still important - people should handle raw meat carefully, not least because there are other strains of food-poisoning bacteria that come through the food chain.

But he added: ''Here - in the case of ESBL-E. coli - it's much more important to wash your hands after going to the toilet.

''It's particularly important to have good hygiene in care homes, as most of the severe E. coli infections occur among the elderly, and people may need help going to the toilet.''

Prof Neil Woodford, of Public Health England, said: ''In order to tackle antibiotic resistance, we not only need to drive down inappropriate prescribing, but reduce infections in the first place.

''In order to limit serious, antibiotic resistant E. coli bloodstream infections, we must focus on thorough hand-washing and good infection control, as well as the effective management of urinary tract infections.''

When to Replace A Toilet??

Aug 24, 2018
The Spruce. (2018). 5 Reasons It Might Be Time to Replace Your Toilet. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Aug. 2018].

If a toilet is giving you trouble, it is easy to conclude that it needs to be replaced. While installing a new toilet can definitely be the best option for a troublesome fixture, it is not necessarily the only solution. When a few repairs will be enough to solve the problem, there is no reason to spend the extra money to buy a new toiletand take the time to install it. The key is knowing when to replace a toilet and when to repair it instead.

Without considering cosmetic issues, there are still a few instances where a new toilet is a good idea. To help you determine when to replace a toilet, take a look at some common problems that you may encounter.

It Needs Too Many Repairs

Rebuilding a toilet can include quite a few items in the tank, like its handle, the flapper, and the fill valve. Some of these repairs can be easily done, but it will cost you money and requires time. Weighing these repair costs versus a new toilet is a smart practice, especially if your toilet suffers from any of the other problems listed below. If you're planning on replacing your toilet anytime soon, then save the money on the repair and replace the toilet instead. This will save you money in the long run, even though it will a bigger expense up front.


It Clogs Frequently

Is your toilet a nuisance because it requires plunging more than once a week? Many of the older low flush toilets require more than once flush most of the time. They are also often plagued with random stoppages. It is not pleasant to have to plunge the toilet on a regular basis. If this is an aggravation for you, then it's time to replace your toilet. You don’t even have to give up the water savings since low flush toilets have come a long way and the new line of water savers work much better.

There's a Porcelain Crack

There are times when hairline cracks develop in the tank or bowl of a toilet. These small cracks can turn into a flood of water at the worst possible time. Porcelain cracks can also be the source of an active leak. Inspect your tank and bowl for any cracks occasionally when you clean the toilet. If you spot a crack, it is always a good idea to replace the toilet before it breaks completely. If the crack is located in the toilet bowl, it is not as urgent to replace the toilet but keep an eye out for leaking water when you flush. An unnoticed leak can lead to a ruined floor over time.


There Are Visual Scratches

As the surface of the toilet porcelain gets worn or scratched, it will become increasingly difficult to keep clean. This is more often the case with an older toilet that has been scrubbed clean many times. If you find yourself cleaning the toiletmore and more, then it might be time to just buy a new one and rid yourself of some extra maintenance.


In Order to Save Water and Money

If you do not already have a low flush toilet, saving water may be reason enough to replace a toilet. You can save quite a bit on your water bill every year with a low flush toilet. A water saving toilet uses less than 2 gallons of water per flush, which is considerably less than the old 3-gallon or even a 5-gallon flush toilets. Not only are you helping the environment by saving water, you are helping yourself save money. Utilities are only going to continue to rise so saving on household water usage makes sense.

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